This report has been prepared with support from Apartment and Office Buildings Association. The Urban Capital Impact Fund has provided generous support for the development of the Inclusionary Conversion model. Funders do not determine research findings or the insights and recommendations of the D.C. Policy Center employees and experts.

The views expressed are those of the author and should not be attributed to members of the D.C. Policy Center’s Board of Directors or its funders. Further information on the D.C. Policy Center is available here.


The author wishes to thank Sunaina Kathpalia and Sonia Pearson for invaluable research assistance.

We are grateful to Peter Tatian from the Urban Institute for providing data on weekly TOPA notices, and to Tommy Borger for lending us his Lusk reports from the late 80s.

We thank AOBA, who convened multiple meetings with landlords where we shared our findings and received their feedback.

Alex Baca, Tommy Borger, Peter Bonnell, Scott Bruton, Payton Chung, Joe Cortright, Meredith Coules, Aimee Custis, Deborah Freis, Brian Grant, Susanna Groves, Emily Hamilton, AJ Jackson, Peggy Jeffers, Luke Lanciano, Michael P. McCarthy, Lisa Mallory, Randi Marshall, David Meit, Kevin Omalley, Danilo Pelletiere, David Roodberg, John Ritz, Arianna Royster, Jennie Schultz, Michael Simpson, Rob Stewart, Stephen Swaim, Becky Strauss, Margery Turner, Andrew Trueblood, Andrew Vincent, Daniel Warwick, Sandy Wilkes, Sabiha Zainulbhai, and Kathryn Zickuhr provided helpful feedback on drafts and modeling. As always, any errors and oversights are under the author’s sole responsibility.

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D.C. Policy Center Fellows are independent writers, and we gladly encourage the expression of a variety of perspectives. The views of our Fellows, published here or elsewhere, do not reflect the views of the D.C. Policy Center.

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